The Health Sector Cybersecurity and Coordination Center (HC3) has compiled a profile of the FIN11 threat group (TA505/Lace Tempest/Hive0065) which is known to target organizations in the healthcare and public health (HPH) sector. Historically, FIN11 has conducted phishing campaigns but has now migrated to other attack vectors against companies in North America and Europe. The group is financially motivated and often engages in data theft for extortion, with or without ransomware.
Recent attacks include the exploitation of zero day vulnerabilities in file transfer solutions to gain access to sensitive data, which is stolen and threatened to be released if a ransom is not paid. FIN11 often deploys CLOP ransomware in its attacks, although it is unclear exactly how many CLOP ransomware attacks FIN11 has conducted. The ransom demands in these attacks vary based on the perceived ability of the victim to pay and typically range from a few hundred thousand dollars to $10 million.
FIN11 phishing and spear phishing campaigns have used a combination of malicious attachments and hyperlinks, and fake download pages have been used to trick people into downloading malware. FIN11 is thought to have been involved in the mass exploitation of vulnerabilities in the MOVEit and Accellion FTA file transfer solutions, the PaperCut MF and NG vulnerability in 2023, the Windows ZeroLogon vulnerability in October 2020, and several other vulnerabilities. FIN11 also targeted HPH sector organizations during the COVID-19 pandemic.
FIN11 is known to deploy a range of different malware variants after gaining initial access to networks. In addition to CLOP ransomware, the group has deployed the LEMURLOOT web shell, P2P RAT, FlawedAmmyy and FlawedGrace remote access Trojans, and Cobalt Strike, along with a host of other tools to allow the group to achieve its objectives.
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Due to the range of different attack vectors, mitigations are varied and involve strong email security measures, prompt patching of known vulnerabilities, endpoint detection solutions, and active monitoring of security alerts for signs of compromise. HC3 recommends that healthcare organizations consider FIN11 a top priority for their security teams, as the group poses a significant threat to the HPH sector.